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TITLE: A study about thermal discomfort and health in bioclimatology and public health

Authors: Abbas Jedariforoughi, Mehdi Nadi.

ABSTRACT: Environmental health issues and climate aspects of human discomfort can be an interesting area of both geological,bioclamatological and public health researchers. There are a long list of different discomfort indexes related to vast majorities of climate factors that we try to review and study some of them. A better knowledge about the impact of weather and climate on health can be applied to make a set of regulations for housing design.(3)

KEYWORDS: Public Health, environment, prevention, epidemiology, comfort index, climate, middle east. mean radiant temperature (MRT), Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI), discomfort index (DI). Thermal discomfort.

Published in Doctmedico journal. Year:2021 volume:1 issue :2 page 172-175.

DOI : 10.17613/vxvc-8s58

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Title:: A study about thermal discomfort and health in bioclimatology and public health

AuthorsDr Abbas Jedariforoughi  ,Dr. Mehdi Nadi


abbasjedari@yahoo.com

mehdi.nadi@gmail.com

AbstractEnvironmental health issues and climate aspects of human discomfort can be an interesting area of both geological,bioclamatological and public health researchers. There are a long list of different discomfort indexes related to vast majorities of climate factors that we try to review and study some of them. A better knowledge about the impact of weather and climate on health can be applied to make a set of regulations for housing design.(3)

Keywords : Public Health, environment, prevention, epidemiology, comfort index, climate, middle east. mean radiant temperature (MRT), Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI), discomfort index (DI). Thermal discomfort.

Introduction:

Human beings need to make a better environment to live and work more comfortably. 

Preventing and treating  disease is the one side and affording a human friendly life situation and making longer life expectancy is the other side of global health consideration. 

Human comfort and environment is undoubtful related. One of environment's most important  part is climate. 

For assessment of comfort index and related topics.,we focused on different climate factors and used the well known formulation to lokalise our study according to climate data in the Middle east. In recent years, the occurrence of extreme meteorological events with different effects on public health has confirmed the close relation between human well‐being and the environment. Heatwaves and cold spells, for instance, are nowadays well‐known hazards associated with increased mortality and morbidity, especially in vulnerable population groups For example people with chronic disease , old people etc. 

There are a lot of studies and clinical trials in different countries about climate effects on chronic disease or cancer prevention. 

Meteorological human discomfort indices or bioclimatic indices are important metrics to

gauge potential risks to human health under varying environmental thermal exposures.(2)

Our study is based on different data of the meteorological Resources to describe human well being possibilities in different locations. 

Materials and MethodThe mean radiant temperature (MRT) and the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) are widely used as human biometeorology parameters to assess the linkages between outdoor environment and human well‐being. Historically computed from meteorological station measurements(1).

Discussion: The human‐based definition of the UTCI and MRT makes the dataset relevant also for public health applications ranging from epidemiology, with the identification of health impacts (i.e. mortality) in relationship to thermally hazardous events, to tourism. The possibility of aggregating grid cells to regional, national, continental or user‐defined boundaries can support policymakers in the assessment, for instance, of advisory thresholds and corresponding precautionary planning for heat and cold extremes (1).

Thom Discomfort Index (DI), also referred to as Thermal-Heat Index, Thermo Hygrometric Index or Temperature-Humidity Index, Units: ◦C

The origins of DI are deeply rooted in a similar simple index known as “Oxford Index” [21],based on a weighted combination of WBT and Ta. Together with the WBT discussed above, the DI originally proposed by a U.S. weather bureau climatologist E. C. Thom in 1959 [28] are the only two physiological thermal stress indicators that have been in regular use dating back nearly six decades.

The original formulation of DI proposed by Thom expressed in discomfort units (Equation (14) not used in this article) takes the following form: DI = 8.3 + 0.4 × WBT + 0.4 × Ta, (14)Simplifying the original equation further to a weighted summation of WBT and Ta, Thom [76] developed the widely used form of DI (Equation (15), as used in this article). DI = 0.5 × WBT + 0.5 × Ta (15) As noted by [77], the strength and appeal of DI lies in its accurate representation of the atmospheric evaporative cooling power (heat load), and its ability to convey the relevant climatic conditions in summer in physiologically significant terms.

The DI is used to assess heat stress for defining thresholds and adequate conditions for the military and is integrated as a measure for training restrictions and limitations. As with The other HDIs discussed above, the DI can also be found in various modified forms in literature. For instance, more recently in 1999, Moran and Pandolf suggested the modified discomfort index (MDI) [71] calculated as: MDI = 0.75 × WBT + 0.3 × Ta  (2)

High on the political and social agenda are the levels of domestic energy use, of carbon emissions, and of fuel poverty. Strategies to reduce these levels should ensure that the health and well-being of residents are protected and improved. Thermal discomfort in housing ranges from being uncomfortable to serious health impacts. Avoiding thermal discomfort maintains well-being and protects the health of, in particular, the most susceptible members of the population.(4)

Indoor thermal discomfort is one of the silent causes of morbidities and mortalities worldwide and will continue to increase in severity with the rise in global temperatures due to climate change.(5)

Conclusion:: According to a climatological study about mortality in the cold season ,It is believed that part of the influence of cold on mortality may be avoidable, and as well we can save human and physical resources, by adopting correct mitigation policies. Some of these policies may be directed to i) the implementation of educational programs -for the adoption of e.g. adequate clothing, time spent outdoors, heating facilities, early warnings; ii) a social funding for those with low income to whom heating represents a heavy burden; iii) changes in architecture and urban planning (e.g. better housing insulation, adequate street shelters, adjustments on the existent building regulation which should be applied to both new buildings as well as to those to be rehab).(3)

The current study provides preliminary evidence to emphasize that thermal discomfort and energy demand is an alarming issue in tropical settings like India with consequent occupational health and productivity risks. Further studies are warranted to identify building materials that are appropriate for use in high, medium and low heat occupations to improve the thermal comfort and energy in the climate change scenario.(5)

References:

(1)

ERA5‐HEAT: A global gridded historical dataset of human thermal comfort indices from climate reanalysis

Claudia Di Napoli  Christopher Barnard  Christel Prudhomme … See all authors 

First published: 18 July 2020

https://doi.org/10.1002/gdj3.102

(2)

Mistry, Malcolm N. 2020. "A High Spatiotemporal Resolution Global Gridded Dataset of Historical Human Discomfort Indices" Atmosphere 11, no. 8: 835. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11080835

https://www.mdpi.com/2073-4433/11/8/835/htm

(3)

Vasconcelos, João, et al. "The health impacts of poor housing conditions and thermal discomfort." Procedia Environmental Sciences 4 (2011): 158-164.

The_health_impacts_of_poor_housing_condi20200206-18099-1bb8dle-with-cover-page-v2.pdf (d1wqtxts1xzle7.cloudfront.net)

(4)

Ormandy, David, and Véronique Ezratty. "Thermal discomfort and health: protecting the susceptible from excess cold and excess heat in housing." Advances in Building Energy Research 10.1 (2016): 84-98.

Thermal discomfort and health: protecting the susceptible from excess cold and excess heat in housing: Advances in Building Energy Research: Vol 10, No 1 (tandfonline.com)

(5)

LATHA, PK, et al. "THERMAL DISCOMFORT AND HEALTH SYMPTOMS IN INDIAN OCCUPATIONAL SETTINGS IN THE CLIMATE CHANGE SCENARIO."

Poll Res-43.pmd (envirobiotechjournals.com)