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TITLE: Review article about developments in cancer prevention in public health in recent years.

Authors: Abbas Jedariforoughi

ABSTRACT:In recent years there is increasing focus on cancer Prevention . In the different aspects for example economic , life expectancy , life style , treatment Severities with the comorbidities , and social burdens is cancer prevention, cornerstone for welfare and life satisfaction and comfort in whole of the world

KEYWORDS:Public health. Cancer. Prevention. precision public health (PPH). neighborhood socioeconomic status (nSES).COVID-19. UVR exposure. National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP). CDC center for disease and control.Mathematical modeling. Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid (VIA). Moh ( ministry of health).

Published in Doctmedico journal. Year:2021 volume:1 issue :2 page 164-167.

DOI : 10.17613/kjv7-ep63

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Title: Review  article about developments in cancer  prevention in public health in recent years.

Abstract : In recent years there is increasing focus on cancer Prevention . In the different aspects for example economic , life expectancy , life style , treatment Severities with the comorbidities  , and social burdens is cancer prevention, cornerstone for welfare and life satisfaction and comfort in whole of the world

Author :   Dr Abbas Jedariforoughi MD


abbasjedari@yahoo.com


Keywords :Public health. Cancer. Prevention. precision public health (PPH). neighborhood socioeconomic status (nSES).COVID-19. UVR exposure. National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP). CDC center for disease and control.Mathematical modeling. Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid (VIA). Moh ( ministry of health).

Introduction :There are many development in cancer prevention.But It can be interesting to evaluate different aspects of public health strategies.

According to precision public health (PPH) hypothesis that fewer areas in need of cancer prevention could be identified by combining existing surveillance data and comparing with geographical data.(1)

Mathematical modeling has played a key role in the implementation of major public health transitions in the prevention of cervical and other human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers.(8)

The main purpose of modeling is to support the policy-maker in complex areas where there are many options to consider.(8).

As with other cancers, CRC risk is multifactorial, including issues such as poor diet, obesity, alcohol abuse, physical inactivity, age above 50 years, history of adenomatous polyps, inflammatory bowel disease, and family history of CRCs or polyps.(13).

Discussion:  Recent studies show  a quantitative assessment of PPH by applying established sensitivity/specificity assessments to geospatial data. Coupling existing disease cluster and nSES data can more precisely identify intervention targets with a liver cancer burden than standard demographic variables. Thus, this approach may inform prioritization of limited resources for liver cancer prevention.(1)

The war on cancer declared in 1971 led to significant investment in new technologies, medicines, and structural resources that have significantly reduced cancer mortality and dramatically increased the number of cancer survivors. Although cancer is primarily a chronic condition and COVID-19 is an acute infectious disease, both benefit from multilevel public health strategies directed at the patient, provider, community, healthcare system, and policy formation level.(2)

Both COVID-19 and cancer prevention and control must address primary prevention, screening, diagnosis, treatment, and survivorship while also addressing racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities. Racial/ethnic disparities in cancer survival, for example, are largely attributable to poverty, delayed screening, differences in provider care recommendations, and lack of access to the latest treatments.(2)

Despite advances in tobacco control and the early detection and treatment for some types of cancer during the past few decades, disparities persist in cancer incidence and mortality across different populations in the United States. (Cronin et al., 2018) For some cancers, these disparities have widened over time. (Mokdad et al., 2017; Polite et al., 2017) Evidence-based recommendations (https://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/) and interventions (https://www.thecommunityguide.org/; https://rtips.cancer.gov/rtips/index.do) exist to prevent cancer and promote cancer screening among diverse populations. Translating this knowledge into practice could improve lives and reduce cancer disparities. (3)

In a example from Canada about cancer prevention, Evidence of the dangers of indoor tanning and its popularity, including among youth, led the Government of Ontario to pass the Skin Cancer Prevention Act (Tanning Beds) (SCPA) in 2014.(6)

There are both physical and psychological harms, and some screening programmes have become very controversial regarding the balance of those harms against the benefit achieved. Policymakers make these judgements on behalf of the population when deciding whether to recommend screening, but each individual has to make the decision about participation for themselves. (10).

A comprehensive cervical cancer prevention program includes primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention in preventing and reducing the morbidity

 and mortality of the disease. HPV vaccination, healthy sexuality education, and male circumcision belong to primary prevention are well implemented worldwide. Pap smears and VIA are popular and well-applied in Indonesia. Indonesia has implemented primary,secondary, and tertiary prevention of cervical cancer according to the national policy of the MoH. (11)

Conclusion: According to a study in south Africa about skin cancer ,Personal solar UVR exposure depends on geographical and behavioural factors while subsequent adverse health risks from excess exposure are influenced by individual susceptibility, such as skin phototype and genetic disposition.(5)

By Conclusion in an economic public health study,Economic evaluation of public health programs for underserved populations, such as the CDC’s NBCCEDP, can help identify effective and efficient use of public health resources. A systematic, transparent economic analysis can help to demonstrate value and guide decisions to implement effective public health programs that may improve efficiency and equity in allocating resources to all sub-groups of the population. Therefore, the lessons learned from the economic analysis of the NBCCEDP can be applied to other public health programs that may provide health promotion and disease prevention services to underserved populations, including the National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program, also funded by the CDC. (7)

Breast, cervical, and colorectal screening are considered by most authorities to have a net benefit when applied appropriately. Prostate screening has been shown to have a benefit, but also considerable harm, and so has not generally been recommended on a population basis. (10).

The highest rates of oral cancer occur in the most disadvantaged sections of the population. An inequitable geographical distribution has been observed due to the regional differences in prevalence of disease-specific risk factors, accessibility and availability of screening/diagnostic measures, socio-economic factors and demographic parameters of the population .(12)

References: 

  1. Towards precision public health: Geospatial analytics and sensitivity/specificity assessments to inform liver cancer prevention https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352827320302779

  2. Addressing COVID-19 Using a Public Health Approach: Perspectives From the Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network https://www.ajpmonline.org/article/S0749-3797(21)00114-8/abstract

  3. The Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network (CPCRN): advancing public health and implementation science https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0091743519303007

  4. Knowledge, attitudes, practice and related factors of oral cancer prevention among public health nurses in Taiwan  https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/ecc.13262?casa_token=co7itAASPmIAAAAA%3AJpV_lXO2Ynttr5WBNBiHOQYFnJbQcurKx3D7eLvKGqE8XgRUj3Mi904G0Rzdwex6SaNAV7eWnQHEEg

  5. The epidemiology of skin cancer and public health strategies for its prevention in Southern Africa. https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/17/3/1017

  6. A Process Evaluation of the Skin Cancer Prevention Act (Tanning Beds): A Survey of Ontario Public Health Units. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10900-019-00658-1

  7. Economics of Cancer Prevention and Health Promotion in Public Health Programs for Underserved Populations https://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/83096

  8. The Key Role of Mathematical Modeling and Health Economics in the Public Health Transitions in Cervical Cancer Prevention https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128144572000209

  9. Abstract C056: Application of precision public health approaches to maximize limited resources for community-based liver cancer prevention educational sessions https://cebp.aacrjournals.org/content/29/6_Supplement_2/C056.abstract

  10. Public health perspectives surrounding cancer prevention and screening: The Ontario edition https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/book/10.1002/9781118990957#page=32

  11. The Prevention Program of Cervical Cancer in Public Health Settings: A Review https://www.academia.edu/44891173/The_Prevention_Program_of_Cervical_Cancer_in_Public_Health_Settings_A_Review

  12. Oral cancer: a major and growing public health problem towards a national policy of prevention and early detection in Tunisia https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7881927/

  13. Colorectal Cancer Risk and Prevention Knowledge among Adults Attending Public Health Facilities in Obudu, Cross River State, Nigeria https://www.journalajmah.com/index.php/AJMAH/article/view/30260